His research for Folkways and The Science of Society was principally ethno-graphical. In one case only had he heard of war for any other reason; three brothers, Barolongs, fought over one woman, and their tribe had remained divided, up to the time of writing, into three parties. The first side is a "struggle for existence,"  which is a relationship between man and nature.
On Liberty, Society, and Politics: The mediseval church tried to unite Edition: Mores are both fewer and more coercive than folkways; when they are laid down by society as ethical principles, they constitute morals. This is because they are traditional and therefore contain in themselves the authority of the ancestral ghosts.
Every group was a peace-group inside and the peace was sanctioned by the ghosts of the ancestors who had handed down the customs and taboos.
The accumulation of capital provides individuals with a competitive advantage and is instrumental in the advance of civilization. They "stressed without surcease the Puritan virtues of hard work, self-reliance, self-denial, frugality, prudence, and perseverance.
War arises from the competition of life, not from the struggle for existence. These powers, he concluded, were developed in the course of human evolution and rendered social reform useless.
Hence arise treaties of commercium and connubium, which bring about a middle state of things between war and peace. In I began to write out a text-book of sociology from material which I had used in lectures during the previous ten or fifteen years. In economics, Sumner was a strong advocate of laissez-faire and classical liberalism while opposing any government programs that he believed interfered in the natural economics We shall find that peace-rules and peace-institutions have been established, from the earliest civilization, even for the relations of groups with each other.
But if we examine the cases of peacefulness or unwarlike-hess which have been cited, we see that only two or three seem to present evidence of Arcadian peace and simplicity, such as, in the imagination of the eighteenth century philosophers, characterized men in a state of nature.
Perhaps the most persistent argument by Sumner concerned the plight of the "forgotten man," the middle class taxed against its will for programs designed to serve other groups. Folkways was notable in several respects.
It is when two men are striving side by side in the struggle for existence, to extort from nature the supplies they need, that they come into rivalry and a collision of interest with each other takes place.
Let us see why that is so.
In —, he served as an alderman in New Haven. The notion of welfare was a resultant from the mystic and the utilitarian generalizations combined. Would I be wrong to say that modernized, industrial cultures have cause the most problems in recent history? Folkways thus become the human means of adjustment to the conditions of life.
There he was educated in the classics and graduated Phi Beta Kappa in These treaties are the origin of international law. It must have control of a certain area of land; hence it comes into collision of interest with every other group.
All at last adopted the same way for the same purpose; hence the ways turned into customs and became mass phenomena. An Englishman who knew them well said that he knew of serious wounds, but he had known of but one death from their affrays.
What was a crime elsewhere was a greater crime there, and what was not a crime elsewhere might be a crime there. He could impress his ideas upon both readers and hearers by his choice of words.Paper #1: William Graham Sumner, “On Social Darwinism.” For the first document analysis assignment you will analyze and interpret William Graham Sumner’s, “On Social Darwinism,” in Foner, Voices of Freedom, pp William Graham Sumner, War and Other Essays  Also in the Library: No amount of mere formal analysis and intellectual fence-building can stand against demonstration.
(of which, in the preface to the Folkways, Professor Sumner speaks as his next task). Review of Folkways by William Graham Sumner James Hayden Tufts.
Professor Sumner's former students will not need the implication in the preface that this book is built out of material gradually accumulated during years of instruction.
Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals William Graham Sumner Ginn, - Manners and customs - pages5/5(1). William Graham Sumner was born on Oct.
30,in Paterson, N. J. His parents were both of English ancestry and of modest social background. The family moved to Connecticut, where Sumner attended the public schools and Yale College. William Graham Sumner · Rating details · 36 Ratings These Sumner calls folkways that, while based on experience, he likens to "the instinctive ways of animals." The strength of this book lies in the first chapter where Sumner links human culture to our animal and evolutionary past/5.Download