Witch-hunts did not exist in Europe before the mid-fifteenth century. It is known too that the majority of those accused were peasants or their wives, in towns also men of the middle or merchant class or their wives.
Especially vulnerable are "defenceless elderly women, against whom the actions are taken without resistance," according to Northern Province Premier Ngoako Ramatlhodi. On the other hand courts were restrained in their attitude to charges of witchcraft, and the evidence required must be considered very exacting.
Evidence of the high proportion of accusations made to the unmarried can be seen in Brian P. If the suspect was a witch, burns would appear on his hands. A scholarly An analysis of the european witchcraft only emerges in the second half of the 20th century, and historical estimates vary wildly depending on the method used.
Levack focuses mainly on the circumstances from which the witch-hunts emerged, as this report will examine. These studies correspond to earlier fancies only in the sense that in many places single women probably were a higher proportion of those accused than of the population as a whole.
The cumulative concept of witchcraft pointed immediately to the devil, the source of the magic and the one most witches adored. Spite signifies hostility to a fellow creature. Returning to Scotland, the king heard of trials that were occurring in North Berwick and ordered the suspects to be brought to him—he subsequently believed that a nobleman, Francis Stewart, 5th Earl of Bothwellwas a witch, and after the latter fled in fear of his life, he was outlawed as a traitor.
The ride by night The formal repudiation of Christianity The secret nocturnal meeting. In Kenya inkillings among the Gusii tribe were occurring at the rate of one a week.
A few collapsing healers - some of whom were declared epileptics in their time - do not necessarily point to a shamanist culture. Witchcraft in Britain[ edit ] Further information: Practitioners of folk magic were left unmolested by the authorities.
The popularity of necromancy among the narrow upper crust of learned men contributed to their belief that magic was likely to be real, and provided the fabric for fears of secret attack. Explanations for accusations toward widowed women also centre on economic factors.
I first encountered the history of witchcraft as an undergraduate at Reed College, as I searched for a topic for my senior thesis. In the Nordic countries, the late 17th century saw the peak of the trials in a number of areas: March 11, The European Witch Hunts: During the eleventh and twelfth centuries, there are few cases of witchcraft in England, and such accusations as were made appeared to have been brought before the ecclesiastical court.
After analysis of court cases my study was directed by a paradox: Indeed, it is arguable that at no other time in European history have adult women been targeted selectively, on such a scale, for torture and annihilation. He hypothesises that poor women were often accused for taking food from their neighbours, supported by the fact that women would often accuse their own neighbours of witchcraft.
Yet although the case which opens the book is remarkable in many ways, it is far from unique in this aspect. Charges of witchcraft also occurred then; to my knowledge the last case of malevolent witchcraft was brought before the district court in What new insight have you gleaned in considering the persecution of witchcraft from a legal, rather than religious or purely social, standpoint?
Heath Cranton Limited, It was a question of the growth of state influence in matters of everyday life which had earlier been part of human privacy or had belonged to an area governed by the family, the clan or perhaps the village community.
I was interested in the social dynamics of persecution and in deviance as a constructed category. Social integration, whether one was born into a given community or arrived there as an immigrant, was absolutely vital to early modern people.
Witch-hunts, especially in Central Europe, resulted in the trial, torture, and execution of tens of thousands of victims, about three-quarters of whom were women. In the Kenyan case, as was also true in a handful of European countries, the witch-hunts appear predominantly to target males.
In Viipuri Karelia 88 persons were accused in 63 trials for witchcraft and magic. Grandier was convicted and burned; however, after the plot succeeded, the symptoms of the nuns only grew worse, and they became more and more sexual in nature.
In my study I have broadened the concept of witchcraft Finnish: Levack states that before the thirteenth century European courts used a system of criminal procedure that made all crimes difficult to prosecute.
My opinion is that in trials for witchcraft at the beginning of the modern period the influence of the shamanist tradition was slight, although some features of shamanism survived till later among the Lapps and also the Finns. Even then this was obviously no new penalty, but the statutory confirmation of a long-established punishment.
Reprinted here with minor corrections.He also went on to write several books about the historical Witch-Cult, Witchcraft Today () and The Meaning of Witchcraft (), and in these books, Gardner used the phrase "the burning times" in reference to the European and North American witch trials.
"Julian Goodare's The European Witch-Hunt is a valuable addition to the study of early modern witchcraft and witch-hunting.
Goodare devotes extra attention to explaining the mentalities, both illiterate and erudite, that converged to create the stereotype of the witch. The European Witch-Hunt [Julian Goodare] Full weight is also given to the context of village social relationships, and there is a detailed analysis of gender issues.
Witch-hunting was a legal operation, and the courts’ rationale for interrogation under torture is explained. Panicking local elites, rather than central governments, were at 5/5(1).
Oct 10, · I'm taking a world history class (from the year onward), and we have a page essay to write, about anything we want. I think I want to write about witchcraft, but I don't know how to approach the topic.
Any ideas?Status: Resolved. Select primary source materials from the fifteenth through seventeenth centuries pertaining to European witch hunts. Available from Hanover Historical Texts Project.
Malleus Maleficarum () without analysis or interpretation. The accounts may be from the time they occurred or created at a later date by someone with first-hand. The European Witch-Hunts, c.
and Witch-Hunts Today. Summary.
For three centuries of early modern European history, diverse societies were consumed by a panic over alleged witches in their midst.Download